|Charles I||Charles II||Charles III, Prince of Wales|
Charles I of England ruled during the early formation of the American colonies. He was born in Fife on 19 November 1600, the second son of James VI of Scotland (and James I of England) and Anne of Denmark and became heir to the throne of England upon the death of his brother, Prince Henry in 1612. His 1625 succession was as the second Stuart King of Great Britain. Because of the controversy during his reign and the time that Jamestown colonists were sending their first Burgesses to London to settle matters of tobacco tax, the king was not convening Parliament. However, as he engaged in wars with France and Spain and sent the Duke of Buckingham to France to gain political influence and military power, the intense dislike for this duke brought about his impeachment in 1628. Charles was compelled to recall Parliament during April of 1640 to request funds for war against the Scots, and again in November. During the reign of Charles I, the colonies suffered a massacre near Jamestown (1622/3) which killed most of the white population.
Charles II assumed the throne of England in 1630 after the execution of his father (Charles I) at Whitehall on 30 January 1649. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the "English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth," and the country was a de facto republic led by Oliver Cromwell. In 1651, Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Thus, Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland while Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. Upon the death of Cromwell in 1658, a political crisis ensued which resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. After the year of 1660, all legal documents were dated as though he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Ultimately, his reign was successful and he was a popular and beloved King. Virginians fared better under Charles II, despite English traderegulations and taxes imposed upon the colonists.
Thus, Prince Charles of Wales will assume the title of Charles III after the death of Queen Elizabeth.
County and Probate Records to Help you Find your Virginia Ancestors